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Central African Republic

Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; French: République centrafricaine  pronounced: ?epyblik s?~t?
af?ik?n], or Centrafrique ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad in the north, Sudan in the
northeast, South Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo in the south and Cameroon
in the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and has an estimated population of
about 4.4 million as of 2008. The capital is Bangui.
France called the colony it carved out in this region Oubangui-Chari, as most of the territory was located in the Ubangi and Chari
river basins. From 1910 until 1960 it was part of French Equatorial Africa. It became a semi-autonomous territory of the French
Community in 1958 and then an independent nation on 13 August 1960, taking its present name. For over three decades after
independence, the CAR was ruled by presidents or an emperor, who either were unelected or who took power by force. Local
discontent with this system was eventually reinforced by international pressure, following the end of the Cold War.
The first multi-party democratic elections in the CAR were held in 1993, with the aid of resources provided by the country's
donors and help from the United Nations. The elections brought Ange-Félix Patassé to power, but he lost popular support during his
presidency and was overthrown in 2003 by General François Bozizé, who went on to win a democratic election in May 2005.
Bozizé's inability to pay public sector workers led to strikes in 2007, which led him to appoint a new government on 22 January
2008, headed by Faustin-Archange Touadéra. In February 2010, Bozizé signed a presidential decree which set 25 April 2010 as the
date for the next presidential election. This was postponed, but elections were held in January and March 2011, which were won by
Bozizé and his party. Despite maintaining a veneer of stability, Bozizé's rule was plagued with heavy corruption,
underdevelopment, nepotism and authoritarianism, which led to an open rebellion against his government. The rebellion was led by
an alliance of armed opposition factions known as the Séléka Coalition during the Central African Republic Bush War (2004–2007)
and the 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict. This eventually led to his overthrow on 24 March 2013. As a result of the
coup d'etat and resulting chaos, governance in the CAR has all but disappeared and Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye has said the
country is "anarchy, a non-state." Both the president and prime minister resigned in January, 2014, to be replaced by an interim
Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas but it also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial
forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country lies in the basins of the Ubangi River, which flows south into the Congo,
while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows north into Lake Chad.
Despite its significant mineral and other resources, such as uranium reserves in Bakouma, crude oil in Vakaga, gold, diamonds,
lumber and hydropower, as well as arable land, the Central African Republic is one of the poorest countries in the world and is
among the ten poorest countries in Africa. The Human Development Index for the Central African Republic is 0.343, which puts the country at 179th out of those 187 countries with data.


Early history

Between about 1000 BC and 1000 AD, Ubangian-speaking peoples spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, settling in most of what is now known as the Central African Republic. During the same period, a much smaller number of Bantu-speaking immigrants settled in south-western CAR and a number of Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Oubangi.
As a result of these early migrations, the majority of the CAR's present population speak Ubangian languages, or Bantu languages that belong to the Niger–Congo family. A minority speak Central Sudanic languages of the Nilo-Saharan family.

Exposure to the outside world

Before the 19th century, the people living in what is now the CAR lived beyond the expanding Islamic frontier in the Sudanic zone of Africa and thus had relatively little contact with Abrahamic religions or northern economies. During the first decades of the 19th century, Muslim traders penetrated the region and cultivated relations with local leaders to facilitate trade and settlement in the region.
The arrival of Muslim traders in the early 19th century was relatively peaceful and depended upon the support of local peoples,but after about 1850, Arab slave traders with well-armed soldiers began to penetrate the region. The Bobangi people became majorslave  traders, they sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. From about 1860 to 1910, slave
traders from Sudan, Chad, Cameroon, Dar al-Kuti in northern CAR and Nzakara and Zande states in southeastern CAR permanently depopulated the eastern CAR.

French colonial period

Main article: Ubangi-Shari
The European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century, during the so-called Scramble for Africa.
Count Savorgnan de Brazza established the French Congo and sent expeditions up the Ubangi River from Brazzaville in an effort to
expand France's claims to territory in Central Africa. Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom also competed to establish their
claims to territory in the region.
In 1889, the French established a post on the Ubangi River at Bangui. In 1890–91, De Brazza sent expeditions up the Sangha River,
in what is now south-western CAR, up the center of the Ubangi basin toward Lake Chad, and eastward along the Ubangi River toward
the Nile, with the intention of expanding the borders of the French Congo to link up the other French territories in Africa. In
1894, the French Congo's borders with Leopold II of Belgium's Congo Free State and German Cameroon were fixed by diplomatic
agreements. In 1899, the French Congo's border with Sudan was fixed along the Congo-Nile divide. This situation left France
without her much coveted outlet on the Nile.
Once European negotiators had agreed upon the borders of the French Congo, France had to decide how to pay for the costly
occupation, administration and development of the territory it had acquired. The reported financial successes of Leopold II's
concessionary companies in the Congo Free State convinced the French government to grant 17 private companies large concessions in
the Ubangi-Shari region in 1899. In return for the right to exploit these lands by buying local products and selling European
goods, the companies promised to pay rent to France and to promote the development of their concessions. The companies employed
European and African agents, who frequently used brutal methods to force the Africans to work for them.
At the same time, the French colonial administration began to force the local population to pay taxes and to provide the state
with free labor. The companies and the French administration at times collaborated in forcing the Central Africans to work for
them. Some French officials reported abuses committed by private company militias, and their own colonial colleagues and troops,
but efforts to hold these people accountable almost always failed. When any news of atrocities committed against Central Africans
reached France and caused an outcry, investigations were undertaken and some feeble attempts at reform were madeby whom?], but the
situation on the ground in Ubangi-Shari remained essentially the same.citation needed]
During the first decade of French colonial rule, from about 1900 to 1910, the rulers of the Ubangi-Shari region increased both
their slave-raiding activities and the selling of local produce to Europe. They took advantage of their treaties with the French
to procure more weapons, which were used to capture more slaves: much of the eastern half of Ubangi-Shari was depopulated as a
result of slave-trading by local rulers during the first decade of colonial rule. After the power of local African rulers was
destroyed by the French, slave raiding greatly diminished.citation needed]
In 1911, the Sangha and Lobaye basins were ceded to Germany, as part of an agreement which gave France a free hand in Morocco.
Western Ubangi-Shari remained under German rule until World War I, after which France reconquered this territory using Central
African troops.
From 1920 to 1930, a network of roads was built, cash crops were promoted and mobile health services were formed to combat
sleeping sickness. Protestant missions were established in different parts of the country. New forms of forced labor were also
introduced, however, as the French conscripted large numbers of Ubangians to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway, and many of these
recruits died of exhaustion and illness.
In 1925, the French writer André Gide published Voyage au Congo, in which he described the alarming consequences of conscription
for the Congo-Ocean railroad. He exposed the continuing atrocities committed against Central Africans in Western Ubangi-Shari by
such employers as the Forestry Company of Sangha-Ubangi. In 1928 a major insurrection, the Kongo-Wara rebellion or 'war of the hoe
handle', broke out in Western Ubangi-Shari, which continued for several years. The extent of this insurrection, which was perhaps
the largest anti-colonial rebellion in Africa during the interwar years, was carefully hidden from the French public, because it
provided evidence of strong opposition to French colonial rule and forced labor.
During the 1930s, cotton, tea, and coffee emerged as important cash crops in Ubangi-Shari and the mining of diamonds and gold
began in earnest. Several cotton companies were granted purchasing monopolies over large areas of cotton production and were able
to fix the prices paid to cultivators, which assured profits for their shareholders. In September 1940, during the Second World
War, pro-Gaullist French officers took control of Ubangi-Shari.

Independence (1960)

On 1 December 1958 the colony of Ubangi-Shari became an autonomous territory within the French Community and took the name Central
African Republic. The founding father and president of the Conseil de Gouvernement, Barthélémy Boganda, died in a mysterious plane
accident in 1959, just eight days before the last elections of the colonial era.
On 13 August 1960, the Central African Republic gained its independence and two of Boganda's closest aides, Abel Goumba and David
Dacko, became involved in a power struggle. With the backing of the French, Dacko took power and soon had Goumba arrested. By
1962, President Dacko had established a one-party state.

Bokassa and the Central African Empire (1965-1979)

On 31 December 1965, Dacko was overthrown in the Saint-Sylvestre coup d'état by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa, who suspended the
constitution and dissolved the National Assembly. President Bokassa declared himself President For Life in 1972, and named himself
Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire (as the country was renamed) on 4 December 1976. A year later, Emperor Bokassa
crowned himself in a lavish and expensive ceremony that was ridiculed by much of the world.
In April 1979, young students protested against Bokassa's decree that all school attendees would need to buy uniforms from a
company owned by one of his wives. The government violently suppressed the protests, killing 100 children and teenagers. Bokassa
himself may have been personally involved in some of the killings. In 1979, France carried out a coup against Bokassa and
"restored" Dacko to power (the name of the country was subsequently restored to Central African Republic). Dacko, in turn, was
overthrown in a coup by General André Kolingba on 1 September 1981.

Central African Republic under Kolingba

Kolingba suspended the constitution and ruled with a military junta until 1985. He introduced a new constitution in 1986 which was
adopted by a nationwide referendum. Membership in his new party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC) was voluntary.
In 1987, semi-competitive elections to parliament were held and municipal elections were held in 1988. Kolingba's two major
political opponents, Abel Goumba and Ange-Félix Patassé, boycotted these elections because their parties were not allowed to
By 1990, inspired by the fall of the Berlin Wall, a pro-democracy movement became very active. In May 1990, a letter signed by 253
prominent citizens asked for the convocation of a National Conference but Kolingba refused this request and detained several
opponents. Pressure from the United States, more reluctantly from France, and from a group of locally represented countries and
agencies called GIBAFOR (France, USA, Germany, Japan, EU, World Bank and UN) finally led Kolingba to agree, in principle, to hold
free elections in October 1992, with help from the UN Office of Electoral Affairs.
After using the excuse of alleged irregularities to suspend the results of the elections as a pretext for holding on to power,
President Kolingba came under intense pressure from GIBAFOR to establish a "Conseil National Politique Provisoire de la
République" (Provisional National Political Council, CNPPR) and to set up a "Mixed Electoral Commission" which included
representatives from all political parties.
When elections were finally held in 1993, again with the help of the international community, Ange-Félix Patassé led in the first
round and Kolingba came in fourth behind Abel Goumba and David Dacko. In the second round, Patassé won 53% of the vote while
Goumba won 45.6%. Most of Patassé's support came from Gbaya, Kare and Kaba voters in seven heavily populated prefectures in the
northwest while Goumba's support came largely from ten less-populated prefectures in the south and east. Furthermore, Patassé's
party, the Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC) or Movement for the Liberation of the Central African
People gained a simple but not an absolute majority of seats in parliament, which meant Patassé needed coalition partners.

Patassé Government (1993–2003)

Patassé relieved former President Kolingba of his military rank of general in March 1994 and then charged several former ministers
with various crimes. Patassé also removed many Yakoma from important, lucrative posts in the government. Two hundred mostly Yakoma
members of the presidential guard were also dismissed or reassigned to the army. Kolingba's RDC loudly proclaimed that Patassé's
government was conducting a "witch hunt" against the Yakoma.
A new constitution was approved on 28 December 1994 and promulgated on 14 January 1995, but this constitution, like those before
it, did not have much impact on the practice of politics. In 1996–1997, reflecting steadily decreasing public confidence in its
erratic behaviour, three mutinies against Patassé's government were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and
heightened ethnic tension. On 25 January 1997, the Bangui Agreements were signed which provided for the deployment of an inter-
African military mission, the Mission Interafricaine de Surveillance des Accords de Bangui (MISAB). Mali's former president,
Amadou Touré, served as chief mediator and brokered the entry of ex-mutineers into the government on 7 April 1997. The MISAB
mission was later replaced by a U.N. peacekeeping force, the Mission des Nations Unies en RCA (MINURCA).
In 1998, parliamentary elections resulted in Kolingba's RDC winning 20 out of 109 seats, constituting a comeback. However, in
1999, notwithstanding widespread public anger in urban centers at his corrupt rule, Patassé won free elections to become president
for a second term.
On 28 May 2001, rebels stormed strategic buildings in Bangui in an unsuccessful coup attempt. The army chief of staff, Abel Abrou,
and General François N'Djadder Bedaya were shot, but Patassé regained the upper hand by bringing in at least 300 troops of the
rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba (from across the river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and by Libyan soldiers.
In the aftermath of this failed coup, militias loyal to Patassé sought revenge against rebels in many neighborhoods of the
capital, Bangui, that resulted in the destruction of many homes as well as the torture and murder of many opponents. Eventually
Patassé came to suspect that General François Bozizé was involved in another coup attempt against him and so Bozizé fled with
loyal troops to Chad. In March 2003, Bozizé launched a surprise attack against Patassé, who was out of the country. Libyan troops
and some 1,000 soldiers of Bemba's Congolese rebel organization failed to stop the rebels, who took control of the country and
thus succeeded in overthrowing Patassé.
Central African Republic since 2003
See also: Central African Republic Bush War
François Bozizé suspended the constitution and named a new cabinet which included most opposition parties. Abel Goumba, known as
"Mr. Clean",citation needed] was named vice-president, which gave Bozizé's new government a positive image. Bozizé established a
broad-based National Transition Council to draft a new constitution and announced that he would step down and run for office once
the new constitution was approved. A national dialogue was held from 15 September to 27 October 2003, and Bozizé won a fair
election that excluded Patassé, to be elected president on a second ballot, in May 2005.
In November 2006, the Bozizé government requested French military support to fend off rebels who had taken control of towns in the
country's north. Though the initially public details of the agreement pertained to logistics and intelligence, the French
assistance eventually included strikes by Mirage jets against rebel positions.
Bozizé was reelected in an election in 2011 which was widely considered fraudulent.
In November 2012, a coalition of rebel groups took over towns in the north and center of the country. These groups eventually
reached a peace deal with the Bozizé's government in January 2013 involving a power sharing government. This peace deal was later
broken when the rebels who had joined the power sharing government left their posts and rebel groups stormed the capital. Bozizé
fled the country and Michel Djotodia took over the presidency. In September 2013, Djotodia officially disbanded Seleka but many
rebels refused to disarm and veered further out of government control.
In November 2013, the UN warned the country was at risk of spiraling into genocide20] and France described the country as "..on
the verge of genocide."21] The increasing violence was largely from reprisal attacks on civilians from Seleka's mainly Muslim
fighters and Christian militias called "anti-balaka", meaning 'anti-machete' or 'anti-sword'.19] Christians make up half the
population and Muslims 15 percent, according to the CIA World Factbook. As many Christians have sedentary lifestyles and many
Muslims are nomadic, claims to the land were yet another dimension of the conflict.
On 13 December 2013, the UNHCR stated 610 people had been killed in the sectarian violence. Nearly 1 million people, a quarter of
the population, were displaced. Anti-balaka Christian militiamen were targeting Bangui's Muslim neighborhoods and Muslim ethnic
groups such as the Fula people.
Violence broke out Christmas Day, 2013 in Bangui, the capital of Central African Republic. Six Chadian soldiers from the African
Union peacekeeping force were killed on Christmas Day in the Gobongo neighborhood and a mass grave of 20 bodies was discovered
near the presidential palace. A spokesman for the president of the Central African Republic confirmed that assailants had
attempted to attack the presidential palace as well, but were pushed back.
On 18 February 2014 United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the UN Security Council to immediately deploy 3,000
troops to the country to combat what he described as innocent civilians being deliberately targeted and murdered in large numbers.
Noting the violent overthrow of the government in 2013, the collapse of state institutions and a descent into lawlessness and
sectarian brutality, Ban said, "The situation in the country has been on the agenda of the Security Council for many years now.
But today's emergency is of another, more disturbing magnitude. It is a calamity with a strong claim on the conscience of
humankind." The secretary-general outlined a six-point plan, including the addition of 3,000 peacekeepers to bolster the 6,000
African Union soldiers and 2,000 French troops already deployed in the country.


The Central African Republic is a landlocked nation within the interior of the African continent. It is bordered by Cameroon,
Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo. The country lies between latitudes
2° and 11°N, and longitudes 14° and 28°E.
Much of the country consists of flat or rolling plateau savanna, typically about 500 metres (1,640 ft) above sea level, of which
most of the northern half lies within the World Wildlife Fund's East Sudanian savanna ecoregion. As well as the Fertit Hills in
the northeast of the CAR, there are scattered hills in the southwest. To the northwest is the Yade Massif, a granite plateau with
an altitude of 1,143 feet (348 m).
At 622,941 square kilometres (240,519 sq mi), the Central African Republic is the world's 45th-largest country. It is comparable
in size to Ukraine, and is somewhat smaller than the US state of Texas.
Much of the southern border is formed by tributaries of the Congo River, with the Mbomou River in the east merging with the Uele
River to form the Ubangi River. In the west, the Sangha River flows through part of the country. The eastern border lies along the
edge of the Nile River watershed.
It has been estimated that up to 8% of the country is covered by forest, with the densest parts in the south. The forest is highly
diverse in nature and includes commercially important species of Ayous, Sapelli and Sipo. The deforestation rate is 0.4% per
annum, and lumber poaching is commonplace.
In the November 2008 issue of National Geographic, the Central African Republic was named the country least affected by light


Main article: Climate of the Central African Republic
The climate of the Central African Republic is generally tropical, with a wet season that lasts from June to September in the
north of the country, and from May to October in the south. During the wet season there are rainstorms on an almost daily basis
and there is often early morning fog. Maximum annual precipitation is 71 inches (1,800 mm) in the upper Ubangi region.
The northern areas are hot and humid from February to May, but can be subject to the hot, dry and dusty trade wind known as the
Harmattan. The southern regions have a more equatorial climate but are subject to desertification, while the northeast of the
country already is a desert.


The population of the Central African Republic has almost quadrupled since independence. In 1960, the population was 1,232,000; as
of a 2009 UN estimate, it was 4,422,000.
The United Nations estimates that approximately 11% of the population aged between 15 and 49 is HIV positive. Only 3% of the
country has antiretroviral therapy available, compared to a 17% coverage in the neighbouring countries of Chad and the Republic of
the Congo.
The nation is divided into over 80 ethnic groups, each having its own language. The largest ethnic groups are the Baya, Banda,
Mandjia, Sara, Mboum, M'Baka, Yakoma, and Fula or Fulani, with others including Europeans of mostly French descent


Main article: Religion in the Central African Republic
According to the 2003 national census, 80.3% of the population is Christian—51.4% Protestant and 28.9% Roman Catholic—and 15% is
Muslim. Animism (9.6%)citation needed] is also practiced.
The CIA World Factbook reports that fifty percent of the population of CAR are Christians (Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%),
while 35% of the population maintain indigenous beliefs. and 15% practice Islam, though it is unclear how up-to-date this
information is.
There are many missionary groups operating in the country, including Lutherans, Baptists, Catholics, Grace Brethren, and Jehovah's
Witnesses. While these missionaries are predominantly from the United States, France, Italy and Spain, many are also from Nigeria,
the Democratic Republic of the Congo and other African countries. Missionaries left the country when fighting broke out between
rebel and government forces in 2002–3, but many of them have now returned to continue their work.


Main article: Languages of the Central African Republic
The Central African Republic's two official languages are Sangho, a Ngbandi-based creole, and French.

Government and politics

Main articles: Politics of the Central African Republic and Central African Republic Council of Ministers
Like many other former French colonies, the Central African Republic's legal system is based upon French law.
A new constitution was approved by voters in a referendum held on 5 December 2004. Full multiparty presidential and parliamentary
elections were held in March 2005, with a second round in May. Bozizé was declared the winner after a run-off vote.
A couple of years later, the Central African Republic fell victim to one of Africa's many civil wars, rebellions and revolutions.
In February 2006, there were reports of widespread violence in the northern part of the country. Thousands of refugees fled their
homes, caught up in the crossfire between government troops and rebel forces. More than 7,000 people fled to neighboring Chad.
Those who remained in the CAR told how government troops systematically killed men and boys that they suspected of cooperation
with the rebels. The French military supported the Bozizé government's response to the rebels in November 2006.
In March 2010, Bozizé signed a decree declaring that presidential elections were to be held on 25 April 2010. The elections were
postponed, firstly until 16 May and then indefinitely. Finally, the general election was set for 23 January 2011. Despite serious
organizational problems, the election proceeded as scheduled.citation needed] A second round was held on 27 March 2011.citation
needed] The general elections were partly funded by the European Union and United Nations Development Programme. The 'Observatoire
National des Elections' monitored the election process. Both Bozizé and his party scored major victories.citation needed]

Prefectures and sub-prefectures

The Central African Republic is divided into 16 administrative prefectures (préfectures), two of which are economic prefectures
(préfectures economiques), and one autonomous commune. The prefectures are further divided into 71 sub-prefectures (sous-
The prefectures are Bamingui-Bangoran, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kémo, Lobaye, Mambéré-Kadéï, Mbomou, Nana-Mambéré,
Ombella-M'Poko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pendé and Vakaga. The economic prefectures are Nana-Grébizi and Sangha-Mbaéré, while the
commune is the capital city Bangui.
Recent events
Despite the veneer of stability during that era, Bozizé's rule was plagued with heavy corruption, underdevelopment, nepotism, and
authoritarianism, leading to an open rebellion against the Bozizé government by an alliance of armed opposition factions known as
the Séléka Coalition during the Central African Republic Bush War and the 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict that
eventually led to his overthrow on 24 March 2013.
In December 2012, Séléka Coalition rebels advanced towards the capital, prompting protests at the French embassy and the
evacuation of the US embassy. After several days of clashes and rebel advances, and following the refusal by the French government
to intervene, the Bozizé government agreed to holding talks with rebels. On 24 March 2013, the Séléka rebels marched into the
capital and stormed the presidential palace, forcing Bozizé to flee to Cameroon via the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The rebel leader Djotodia proclaimed himself President after conquering the capital of Bangui. Nicolas Tiangaye remained as the
prime minister: he was recently appointed and was allowed by the Séléka rebels to retain his post, as he was endorsed by the
Resistance against the new rulers consisted mostly of armed youths, and soldiers in a base 60 kilometres (37 mi) from the capital.
By 27 March, normal life in the capital had begun to be resumed. Top military and police officers recognized Djotodia as President
on 28 March 2013, in what was viewed as "a form of surrender".
A new government was appointed on 31 March 2013, which consisted of members of Séléka and representatives of the opposition to
Bozizé, one pro-Bozizé individual and a number representatives of civil society. On 1 April, the former opposition parties
declared that they would boycott the government. After African leaders in Chad refused to recognize Djotodia as President,
proposing instead the formation of a transitional council and the holding of new elections, Djotodia accordingly signed a decree
on 6 April for the formation of a council that would act as a transitional parliament. The council was tasked with electing a
president to serve prior to elections in 18 months.
In November 2013 United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon noted that the security situation in the country remained precarious
with government authority nonexistent outside of Bangui and Jan Eliasson, the UN deputy secretary general said that the CAR was
"...descending into complete chaos.." Both the president and prime minister resigned through an announcement at a regional summit
in January, 2014, after which interim leader and speaker for the provisional parliament took over.
In 2014, Amnesty International reported several massacres committed by the Christian group called Anti-balaka against Muslim
civilians, forcing thousands of Muslims to flee the country. Several reports warned that what is going on is a genocide and a wide
ethnic-cleansing against Muslims in Central African Republic.

Human rights

Main article: Human rights in the Central African Republic
The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that, in general, the CAR's human rights record
remained poor. Concerns were expressed over numerous government abuses. Freedom of speech is addressed in the country's
constitution, but there were incidents of government intimidation with the intent to limit media criticism. A report by the
International Research & Exchanges Board's media sustainability index noted that "the country minimally met objectives, with
segments of the legal system and government opposed to a free media system".
From 1972 to 1990, and in 2002 and 2003, the CAR was rated 'Not Free' by Freedom House. It was rated 'Partly Free' in 1991–2001
and from 2004 to the present.On the United Nations Human Development Index, it ranks 179 out of 187 countries.
According to the U.S. State Department, major human rights abuses occur in the country. These include: extrajudicial executions by
security forces; the torture, beating and rape of suspects and prisoners; impunity, particularly among the armed forces; harsh and
life-threatening conditions in prisons and detention centers; arbitrary arrest and detention, prolonged pretrial detention and
denial of a fair trial; restrictions on freedom of movement; official corruption; and restrictions on workers' rights. The State
Department report also cites: widespread mob violence that often results in fatalities; the prevalence of female genital
mutilation; discrimination against women and Pygmies; trafficking in persons; forced labor; and child labor. Freedom of movement
is limited in the northern part of the country "because of actions by state security forces, armed bandits, and other nonstate
armed entities" and due to fighting between government and anti-government forces, many persons have been internally displaced.68
percent of the marriages in Central African Republic fall under the category of child marriages.

Foreign relations and military

The Central African Armed Forces were established in 1960. In 2009, the Central African Republic began seeking investments from

Foreign aid

The Central African Republic is heavily dependent upon multilateral foreign aid and the presence of numerous NGOs which provide
services which the government fails to provide. As one UNDP official put it, the CAR is a country "sous serum", or a country
metaphorically hooked up to an IV. (Mehler 2005:150). The very presence of numerous foreign personnel and organizations in the
country, including peacekeepers and even refugee camps, provides an important source of revenue for many Central Africans.citation
Much of the country is self-sufficient in food crops. Livestock development is hindered by the presence of the tsetse fly.
In 2006, due to ongoing violence, over 50,000 people in the country's northwest were at risk of starvation. This was only averted
thanks to United Nations support.citation needed]

Peacebuilding Commission

On 12 June 2008, the Central African Republic became the fourth country to be placed on the agenda of the UN Peacebuilding
Commission, which was set up in 2005 to help countries emerging from conflict avoid the slide back into war or chaos. The 31-
member body agreed to take up the situation after a request from the government.

Peacebuilding Fund

On 8 January 2008, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon declared that the Central African Republic was eligible to receive
assistance from the Peacebuilding Fund. Three priority areas were identified: firstly, the reform of the security sector;
secondly, the promotion of good governance and the rule of law; and, thirdly, the revitalization of communities affected by


Banks in the Central African Republic dispense the CFA franc, which is accepted in a number of different countries. Agriculture is dominated by the cultivation and sale of food crops such as cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantain. The annual real GDP growth rate is just above 3%. The importance of food crops over exported cash crops is indicated by the fact that the total production of cassava, the staple food of most Central Africans, ranges between 200,000 and 300,000 tonnes a year, while
the production of cotton, the principal exported cash crop, ranges from 25,000 to 45,000 tonnes a year. Food crops are not exported in large quantities, but they still constitute the principal cash crops of the country, because Central Africans derive far more income from the periodic sale of surplus food crops than from exported cash crops such as cotton or coffee.citation needed]
Graphical depiction of Central African Republic's product exports in 28 color-coded categories
The Republic's primary import partner is Netherlands (19.5%). Other imports come from Cameroon (9.7%), France (9.3%) and South Korea (8.7%). Its largest export partner is Belgium (31.5%), followed by China (27.7%), the Democratic Republic of Congo (8.6%),Indonesia (5.2%) and France (4.5%).
The per capita income of the Republic is often listed as being around $300 a year, said to be one of the lowest in the world, butthis figure is based mostly on reported sales of exports and largely ignores such unregistered sale of foods, locally produced alcohol, diamonds, ivory, bushmeat and traditional medicine. For most Central Africans, the informal economy of the CAR is more important than the formal economy.citation needed] Among the mining industry, diamonds constitute the country's most important export, accounting for 40–55% of export revenues, but it is estimated that between 30% and 50% of those produced each year leave
the country clandestinely. Export trade is hindered by poor economic development and the country's location away from the
coast.citation needed]
The wilderness regions of this country represent potential ecotourist destinations. In the southwest, the Dzanga-Sangha National
Park is located in a rain forest area. The country is noted for its population of forest elephants and western lowland gorillas.
To the north, the Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park is well-populated with wildlife, including leopards, lions, and rhinos.
The Bamingui-Bangoran National Park is located in the north-east of CAR. The parks have been badly affected by the activities of
poachers, in particular from Sudan, over the past two decades.citation needed]
CAR is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). In the 2009 World Bank Group's report
Doing Business, it was ranked 183rd of 183 as regards 'ease of doing business', a composite index that takes into account
regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it.


Science and technology

See also: Communications in the Central African Republic
Presently, The Central African Republic has active television services, radio stations, internet service providers, and mobile
phone carriers. Socatel is the leading provider for both internet and mobile phone access throughout the country. The primary
governmental regulating bodies of telecommunications are both Ministère des Postes, and Télécommunications et des Nouvelles
Technologies. In addition, The Central African Republic receives international support on telecommunication related operations
from ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) within the International Telecommunication Union to improve infrastructure.
The Central African Republic has over 1,800 motor vehicles on the road, although a limited quantity of land has been developed
into highways.


See also: Energy in the Central African Republic
The Central African Republic primarily uses hydroelectricity because there are few resources for energy.


Public education in the Central African Republic is free and compulsory from ages 6 to 14. However, approximately half the adult
population of the country is illiterate.

Higher education

The University of Bangui, a public university located in Bangui which includes a medical school, and Euclid University, aninternational university in Bangui are the two institutions of higher education in the Central African Republic.


Main article: Health in the Central African Republic
The largest hospitals are located in the Bangui district. Fortunately, there are also Air Ambulances which provide transportation
to larger hospitals for citizens outside of the area. As a member of the World Health Organization, The Central African Republic
also receives various vaccination assistance, such as a 2014 intervention for the prevention of a measles epidemic. In 2007,
female life expectancy at birth was 48.2 years and male life expectancy at birth was 45.1 years. The fertility rate is about
five births per woman.According to 2009 estimates, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is about 4.7% of the adult population (ages 15–
49). Government expenditure on health was at US$ 20 (PPP) per person in 2006. There were 0.05 physicians per 1000 people in
2009. Government expenditure on health was at 10.9% of total government expenditure in 2006.

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